Tag Archives: language

There are unnecessary page numbers (on pages that are necessary) within the front matter, i.e., Roman numerals on (Page) i, ii, iii, iv, v and vi. There is another on (page) xii. After (page) xii there are more starting on page 1 and 2. Page numbers…

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Numbering pages started out not as a tool for readers but a guide for those who physically produced books. In Latin manuscripts copied in the British Isles as far back as the eighth or ninth century, numbering was sometimes used to ensure that individual sheets of parchment were collated in the correct order. In some cases, numbers appeared on both the recto and verso pages, but other times, only one side of the page bore a number. Use of numbering was sparse. It’s been estimated that around 1450—just before the birth of printing in the West—less than 10 percent of manuscript books contained pagination.

Fifty years later, the proportion of now-printed works with pagination was much higher. Part of the change reflected the new role of page numbers. Rather than strictly being tools for compiling leaves in the proper order, by the 1510s scholars were starting to refer to page numbers of printed volumes in their own writing.

When publishers wish to distinguish between the front matter and the story, the initial title pages are not numbered, the front matter is numbered using lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc.) and the first page of the story or main content begins with one. The title page of the story is not numbered, but if a story is broken into multiple parts (Part I, Part II, etc.), the title page for the section may be included in the numbering but not shown on the page. The first page of Chapter One would then be numbered as page three rather than page one as would be the normal case.

The sixteenth edition of the Chicago Manual of Style calls for the beginning of the text to begin with the Arabic number 1, while the front matter that precedes it is to be numbered with lower-case Roman numerals. If the front matter is extensive and a second half-title page is included, it is to be numbered as page one and its verso as page two. If a part title is included, it is to be included in the same numbering as the text. Page numbers do not appear on part titles. Most citation systems also call for the identification of the page number from which a quote or point is drawn. For example, such usage is specified in their citation formats of both the Chicago Manual of Style, and the Bluebook.

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Triple question marks are attached to the conclusion of 23 sentences; each sentence is printed on its own page starting on p.161 (a novel)

Questionnaires have advantages over some other types of literature in that they are cheap, do not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone surveys, and often have standardized answers that make it simple to compile data. However, such standardized answers may frustrate users. Questionnaires are also sharply limited by the fact that respondents must be able to read the questions and respond to them.

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Is the neighborhood safe? The map (see example on the cover of the book) gives users a Gist of how dangerous it is in different parts of a city down to specific streets and blocks by using an intuitive color-coded scheme known as “heatmap.” Blocks with 0-30 incidents of crime per year are shown in green while the ones with 160 incidents or displayed as red…

The so-called “Dummy” or (filler or Placeholder) text is a modified edition of Dostoyevsky’s Crime and Punishment by utilizing Constance Garnett’s translation of ‘Part I’ as the base text. Dostoyevsky’s text is rearranged into verse paragraphs that form a rhetorical unit similar to that of a prose paragraph. The paragraphs that utilize the word ‘landlady’ are italicized, therefore, the “landlady” character in Dostoyevsky’s text is conceptually tied with the characters (whose names are also italicized) mentioned in the title; Ike, Benjy, and Darl (as created by William Faulkner for his novel The Sound and the Fury). The Faulkner quote (see title on the front cover) is a reference to his novel The Sound and the Fury. Faulkner readily acknowledged the difficulty of what he’d written and proposed using different-colored inks as a way to make Benjy’s section more accessible, with distinct shades assigned to its crisscrossed time-settings. Therefore, a “heatmap” (see the image on the front cover) is a graphical representation of data where the individual values contained in a matrix are represented as colors. Rainbow colormaps are often used, as humans can perceive more shades of color than they can of gray, and this would purportedly increase the amount of detail perceivable in the image. Therefore, the text of the header is composed of sentences printed in different colored inks. ​

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They place his given-name (“Todd”) on pages 25 through 58. Then they place his middle names (“Earl”) on p.322 and (“Winkels”) on pages 356 through 411. Then they place his Catholic confirmation name (“Augustine”) on p.455…


The word ‘autobiography’ was first used deprecatingly by William Taylor in 1797 in the English periodical the Monthly Review, when he suggested the word as a hybrid but condemned it as ‘pedantic’; but its next recorded use was in its present sense by Robert Southey in 1809. The form of autobiography however goes back to antiquity. Biographers generally rely on a wide variety of documents and viewpoints; an autobiography, however, may be based entirely on the writer’s memory. 
Autobiographical works are by nature subjective. The inability — or unwillingness — of the author to accurately recall memories has in certain cases resulted in misleading or incorrect information. Some sociologists and psychologists have noted that autobiography offers the author the ability to recreate history.
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“I promise there are two pages between pages 34 and 37. They promise there are ten pages between pages 122 and 133. She promises there are twenty-four pages between pages 201 and 226. He promises there are…”


Recognition of the significance of speech acts has illuminated the ability of language to do other things than describe reality. In the process the boundaries among the philosophy of language, the philosophy of action, aesthetics, the philosophy of mind, political philosophy, and ethics have become less sharp. In addition, an appreciation of speech acts has helped lay bare a normative structure implicit in linguistic practice, including even that part of this practice concerned with describing reality.

 

Austin famously claimed that performatives are not statements (1962, p. 6). This may be taken either as the claim that performative sentences, even those in the indicative grammatical mood, lack truth value; or instead as the claim that utterances of performative sentences, even when such sentences have truth value, are not assertions. One can consistently hold that an indicative sentence has truth value, and even that it may be uttered in such a way as to say something true, while denying that its utterance is an assertion. (Testing a microphone in a windowless room, I utter, “It’s raining,” and it happens to be raining outside. Here I have said something true but have made no assertion.)

 

Lemmon 1962 argues that performative utterances are true on the ground that they are instances of a wider class of sentences whose utterance guarantees their truth. If sound, this argument would show that performatives have truth value, but not that they are assertions. It also leaves unanswered the question why some verb phrases such as ‘I promise’ may be used performatively while others cannot be so used. Sinnott-Armstrong 1994 also argues that performatives can have truth value without addressing the question whether they are also used to make assertions. Reimer 1995 argues that while performatives have truth values, they are not also assertions. Adopting a similar strategy, Jary 2007 aims to explain how utterances of such sentences as “I order you to clean the kitchen,” can succeed in being orders. In so doing he draws on Green’s 2007 analysis of showing to argue that such utterances show (rather than merely describe) the force of the speaker’s utterance. Because ‘show’ is factive, if such an utterance shows its force, then it must have that force.

 

Searle 1969 had argued that a performative formula such as “I promise to…” is an “illocutionary force indicator” in the sense that it is a device whose role is to make explicit the force of the speaker’s utterance. Making something explicit, however, would seem to involve characterizing an independent event or state of affairs, and as a result Searle’s account presupposes that speakers can imbue their utterances with the force of demotions and excommunications; yet this is what was to be explained.

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